ijh{kk vkSj ifj.kke
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i<+kbZ gS rks ijh{kk gksxh gh vkSj ijh{kk,a gksx rks ifj.kke h gksxsa ghA ekpZ ls ebZ 
rd cPpksa ds psgjksa ij xeZ yw ds FkisMs ns[ks tk ldrs gS mUUkhnsa vkSj Fkds psgjs] vkSj 
vka[kksa esa ejhfpdkA kxuk vkSj nkSM+s dh gkaQuh fy;s cPps vkSj cfPp;ka ns[ks tkrs gSA
D;k ;g n`"; fdlh h ikyd] fdlh h ukxfjd ds fy;s rlYyh nsus okyk gks ldrk 
gS \ 'kk;n ugA ;g n`"; fny dks nq[kh djus okyk gksrk gSAtSls&tSls o"kZ chr jgs gS 
f'k{kk] fdrkc] ijh{kk esa dbZ ifjorZu gq, gS A fdrkcksa vkSj dk;Zeksa esa rks ifjorZu 
fn[krk gS] ysfdu foxr chl o"kksZ esa tks lkekftd] vkfFkZd] jktuSfrd ifjorZu vk;s gS 
ml pqukSrh ls tw>us dh rS;kjh f'k{kk ds dk;Ze esa ug gSAD;k dksbZ O;kid lkekftd 
loZs ;k xgjk v/;;u fd;k x;k gS ftldh chuk ij nkos ds lkFk dgk tk lds fd yks 
kbZ ^^;s fdrkcs gS] ;s dkslZ gS** f'k{kd h rS;kj gS]i<+kvks vkSj pkgk x;k ;k v/;;u esa 
mjk y{; kIr djksA 

tgka rd loZs rFkk v/;;uksa dk iz'u gS os dqN dfFkr ^^eksVhosVsM** laLFkkvksa }kjk 
fd;s x;s loZs rFkk fokxh; vkadM+ksa ds  ^^xfron~Zd** lqlekpkjksa ij fuZj gksrs 
gSAmudk ncko gksrk gS fd mUgksaus tks ifj.kke kIr fd;s gS mUg ij f'k{kk dh fn'kk 
r; gksAyxx gksrk h ogh gSAvarr% ,d viaxrk] ,d fodykaxrk ges'kk cuh jgrh 
gSA f'k{kk dks ftl rjg o ds lkFk nkSM+ yxkuh Fkh mldh txg og nku esa kIr 
^^rhu ifg;s okyh** dqlhZ ij jsaxrh ut+j vkrh gSAD;k ;g ^^rhifg;k okgu** gekjh 
'kSf{kd xfr dk rhd rks ug cu x;k gS \ blesa dksbZ 'kd ug fd vc kFkfed] 
ek/;fed rFkk mPprj ek/;fed fo|ky;ksa ds ikl Bhd&Bkd vkfFkZd lk/ku gSA vc 
fo|ky; igys dh rjg vkfFkZd vkoksa dk jksuk ug jksrsA ysfdu loky ;g gS fd 
e/; izns'k tSls jkT; esa tks 'kkar izns'k gS vuko';d jktuSfrd vO;oLFkk ug gSA 
dke djus dk h Bhd&Bkkd okrkoj.k gSA ,sls esa ge ^^cLrs dk cks> de djus** 
ijh{kkvksa dk ; de djus** dk dke D;ksa ug dj ik jgs gS \ ns'k dh xjhc turk 
us f'k{kk ds fy;s ;g O;oLFkk gesa nh gS ge gS fd mlh turk ds fr vfrcn~ ut+j 
vkrs gS \ 


gesa ijh{kk dk ; vkSj ijh{kk vkSj flQZ ijh{kk ds ^nhO; ea=* ls FkksM+k foJke ys dj 
kV ij 'kkafr ls cSB dj fopkj djuk pkfg;s fd varr% f'k{kk ^ijh{kk* gh gS \ kIr 
fd;s x;s ^^vad** gh vafre miyfC/k gS \ ,d mnkgj.k nsuk pkgwaxkA ge ns'k oklh 
vPNh rjg tkurs gS fd ge vius kFkfed 'kkyk ds Lrj ij cPpksa dks fdrkcsa] Ldwy] 
kstu ns jgs gSA ek/;fed 'kkyk dh Nk=kvksa dks h Mz~sl rFkk iqLrds nh tkrh gSA 
mnkgj.k ;wa Fkk fd fo|ky; esa x;s cPps VkV ih ij cSBs Fks][kkuk [kk pqds Fks] fdrkcsa 
iyV jgs Fks] cfPp;ka Mz~sl esa Fkh] geus iwNk lj dgka x;s \ ikl gh cSBs pkSdhnkj tks 
vius cPps ds fy;s ogka vk;k Fkk] cksyk] ^lj rks ernkrk lwph ds dke esa gS^ Aljdkj 
vkSj turk rks dgsxh fd *[kkuk gS] diM+s gS] fdrkcsa gS] Ldwy gS* bruk gksus dss ckotwn 
ljdkjh fo|ky;ksa esa i<+kbZ ug gksrhA ftls bu reke bUrtkekr ds ckn gksuk Fkk mls 
rks ljdkj us cqyk fy;kA loky ernkrk lwph gks ;k pquko] ;k tux.kuk ;s dke h 
vfr vko';d gS bUgsa djkuk gh gSA ysfdu ljdkjh fokx Ldwy ds vuqlkj tjk h 
rkyesy cSBk ys rks fo|ky; esa f'k{kd dh mifLFkfr cuh jg ldrh gSAlkFk gh mlds 
dke ij jkslk fd;k tk;s]vkns'kkuqlkj ;g ncko gks fd ijh{kk ifj.kke 85 ls 90 gksuk 
pkfg;s nwljh rjQ mls vkSlru 210 fnu esa ls 125 ls 140 fnu h ug fey jgs gSA 
fiNys 2000 ls 2003 rd ds 'kSf{kd loZs esa ;g ckr f'kr ls mjh Fkh fd tqykbZ ls 
vDVwcj rd ds egRoiw.kZ efguksa esa f'k{kdksa dks xSj f'k{kdh; dk;ksZ esa yxk;k x;k FkkA 
fQj fnlEcj ls Qjojh rd mUgsa iqu% vU; dke fn;s x;s FksA ,sls esa ncko ls >wBs 
vkadM+ksa dk [ksy 'kq: gks tkrk gSA vf/kdkjh h [kq'k] Ldwy lUu] ljdkj dk psgjk 
izQqYy ysfdu ckyd dk D;k gksxk \ ftlds fy;s ;s reke dk;Ze gS mlds fy;s 
^frcn~rk* dgha Hkh ugha fn[krh ,sls esa D;k gksxk \ ckr ;gh lkeus vk,xh fd 
ljdkjh fo|ky;ksa esa dke ug gksrk ;k f'k{kd djuk ug pkgrkA vkt fLFkfr dh 
lokZf/kd ekax gS fd bl lalk/ku ds lkFk f'k{kd dks ^^i<+kbZ] ijh{kk vkSj ifj.kke** ds 
ekeys esa dqN o"kZ dk volj nsuk pkfg;sA vkadM+ksa ds fryLe ls ^f'k{kk* vkSj ^cPps* dh 
eqf gks rkfd og fcuk fdlh Qjsc ds bl ^nqfu;k* dks i<+ ldsA


ftu yksxksa us ijh{kk,a ns[kh gSA ;k tks h ijh{kk dh iapks'kh ;k=k ij x;s gS os tkurs 
gS fd ^unh* lw[krh tk jgh gSA ml 'kSf{kd unh esa flQZ ;knsa gS ikuh ug gSAijh{kk esa 
bruh ekjk&ekjh] bruk ruko bruh va/ksj xnhZ gS fd ;fn ijh{kk u h gks rks h cPps 
blls T;knk gh lh[ksaxsA de ls de pkykdh] >wB vkSj fo|ky;ksa dh dfcykbZ >M+iksa] 
ywV ds eky dh fgLlsnkjh ds fo";ksa ls rks cpsxsaA vc bu ijh{kkvksa ij xahj fopkj djus 
dk o gSA ;s yk[kksa Vu ^dkxt* /ku] vU; lk/ku] dke ds aVksa dh cjcknh ls ^Qjsc* 
ds dkyhu cquuk gS* rks fQj loky gS fd bl uwjk dq'rh ls rkSck dj yh tk;sA Qjsc 
vkSj vkRejfr ls ftruh tYnh mcj tk;s mruk gh vPNk gSA


lokZf/kd fpark mfpr lalk/kuksa dk mi;ksx ug gksus dh gSA kIr gks jgs lalk/ku dks 
^^ijh{kk ifj.kke ewyd** ug oju lkekftd ifj.kke ewyd cukus dk gSAljdkj f'k{kk 
vkSj f'k{kd dks jksls vkSj fo'okl ds lkFk 'kSf{kd dk;Z djus dk fuZ; okrkoj.k nsus 
dk iz;kl djs] nwljh rjQ Lo;a f'k{kd viuh igy xkeh rkdr [kks jgs gSA vxj os 
rstLohrk ls ^ckyd* ds fy, frcn~ gksrs gS rks tuer muds lkFk gksxkA bl le; 
e/; izns'k esa lokZf/kd t:jr 'kSf{kd okrkoj.k esa rkyesy dk gSAMkbV dh tks izHkkoh 
Hkwfedk ftlesa 'kks/k] lrr uokpkj] LFkkuh; tkudkjh] fof dykxr] dkS'kyksa ls f'k{kd 
dks lEi cukus dk FkkA mldh txg ogh ^^ch-Vh-vkbZ** ls dqN derj gh gks x;k gSA 
ftys dk f'k{kk fokx] MkbV vkSj jktho xka/kh f'k{kk fe'ku rkyesy ds vko ls xzLr 
gSA ;g ns[kus esa vk;k gS fd tgka f'k{kk fe'ku vkSj MkbV esa rkyesy gS vkSj ftyk 
f'k{kk fokx dk lg;ksx jgk ogka dkQh vPNs ifj.kke feys gSA nqkZX; gS fd vPNs 
ifj.kkeksa dh j.kuhfr] in~fr] ewY;kadu ds nLrkosth dj.k dh dksbZ dk;Z laLD`fr 
gS gh ugA xfr dk vFkZ vkadM+ksa dh gsjkQsjh ug oju lkekftd thou esa f'k{kk 
,d thou ewY; dh rjg uokpkj djsA ijh{kk,a Hk;Hkhr djrh gS] ifj.kke tks gekjh 
^j.kuhfr* ds Qwy gS mUgsa igu dj ge fdrus gh xoZ eafMr gks ysaA ysfdu i<+kbZ ds 
ek;us bl lekt] bl ifjos'k] vkSj lafpr Kku dks i<+uk vkSj le>uk gSA varr% bl 
nqfu;k dks le>uk gSA

            

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